Some Alternate Technologies

25 Cheese Substitutes

1. Why?

  • Cost
  • Control functionality
  • Nutrition: reduced cholesterol and saturated fats
  • Longer shelf life

2. Threat or Opportunity?

  • Dairy manufacturers in US believe the market effect of substitutes is additive because:
    • Their use as extenders (e.g., on pizza) lowers price and increases consumption by cost sensitive consumers.
    • Some people using substitutes for dietary reasons would not consume natural cheese.
  • It is the dairy companies producing substitutes not other food manufacturers.
  • This may work for some processors, but it’s hard to see how dairy farmers can win from production of cheese analogues.

3. Varieties currently available in the US

  • Cheddar – most popular
  • Mozzarella – industrial purposes, 60% used in pizza.
  • Others: Swiss, Colby, Gouda, Provolone, Process, Cream Cheese, Cheese Spreads

4. Types of substitutes

Filled Cheeses

  • Skimmed milk and vegetable oils or blends of butter and vegetable oils.
  • Unpopular because you must work with low solids raw material.

Cheese Analogues

  • Synthetic: soya protein + soya oil + stabilizer/emulsifier + flavour
  • Partial Dairy: casein + soya oil + stabilizer/emulsifier + flavour
  • Dairy: casein + butter oil + stabilizer/emulsifier + flavour

5. Cheddar Cheese Substitute?

Ingredient % by weight
Sodium caseinate 13.0
Calcium caseinate 10.0
Vegetable oil 25.0
Lactic acid 1.0
Stabilizer/emulsifier 1.0
Salt 1.5
Flavour (Enzyme modified cheese) 1.5
Water 34.0
Cheddar cheese 13.0

Process

  1. Melt the fat (e.g., a partly hydrogenated coconut oil of melting point 37°C) raise the temperature to 70°C.
  2. Add the stabilizer system. Proprietary blends are available from several suppliers.
  3. Blend the water into the oil with rapid agitation to form an emulsion.
  4. Slowly, add the calcium caseinate to the oil/water emulsion while the temperature is maintained at 70°C. Then, blend in the sodium caseinate. Cheese texture will begin to develop.
  5. Blend in the Cheddar cheese and salt and then add the enzyme-modified cheese.
  6. Add the acid together with a little annatto for colouring. The drop in pH has a dramatic effect on texture development.
  7. Fill molds, cool to 5°C and store overnight for flavour equilibration.

License

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Cheese Making Technology e-Book by Arthur Hill and Mary Ann Ferrer is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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