Some Alternate Technologies
- Control functionality
- Nutrition: reduced cholesterol and saturated fats
- Longer shelf life
2. Threat or Opportunity?
- Dairy manufacturers in US believe the market effect of substitutes is additive because:
- Their use as extenders (e.g., on pizza) lowers price and increases consumption by cost sensitive consumers.
- Some people using substitutes for dietary reasons would not consume natural cheese.
- It is the dairy companies producing substitutes not other food manufacturers.
- This may work for some processors, but it’s hard to see how dairy farmers can win from production of cheese analogues.
3. Varieties currently available in the US
- Cheddar – most popular
- Mozzarella – industrial purposes, 60% used in pizza.
- Others: Swiss, Colby, Gouda, Provolone, Process, Cream Cheese, Cheese Spreads
4. Types of substitutes
- Skimmed milk and vegetable oils or blends of butter and vegetable oils.
- Unpopular because you must work with low solids raw material.
- Synthetic: soya protein + soya oil + stabilizer/emulsifier + flavour
- Partial Dairy: casein + soya oil + stabilizer/emulsifier + flavour
- Dairy: casein + butter oil + stabilizer/emulsifier + flavour
5. Cheddar Cheese Substitute?
|Ingredient||% by weight|
|Flavour (Enzyme modified cheese)||1.5|
- Melt the fat (e.g., a partly hydrogenated coconut oil of melting point 37°C) raise the temperature to 70°C.
- Add the stabilizer system. Proprietary blends are available from several suppliers.
- Blend the water into the oil with rapid agitation to form an emulsion.
- Slowly, add the calcium caseinate to the oil/water emulsion while the temperature is maintained at 70°C. Then, blend in the sodium caseinate. Cheese texture will begin to develop.
- Blend in the Cheddar cheese and salt and then add the enzyme-modified cheese.
- Add the acid together with a little annatto for colouring. The drop in pH has a dramatic effect on texture development.
- Fill molds, cool to 5°C and store overnight for flavour equilibration.