List of Figures

Figure 1.1. Flow chart of cheese making processes.

Figure 1.2. Effects of particular processing conditions, assuming other factors do not change, on pH at draining, minimum pH occurring in the cheese during early stages of curing, calcium retained in the cheese, the rate of syneresis, the moisture in the non-fat substance (MNFS) and the amount of calf rennet activity retained in the cheese.

Figure 9.1. Milk production vs time (days).

Figure 9.2. Seasonal variation in average milk composition and SCC (Somatic Cell Counts) in herd milks.

Figure 9.3. Lactose metabolism.

Figure 9.4. Anaerobic glycolysis.

Figure 9.5. Concepts of pH and titratable acidity.

Figure 9.6. Gassy cheese.

Figure 9.7. Seasonal variation of SCC (Somatic Cell Counts) in Ontario herd milks. Data was collected during Dec 2016 to Nov 2017.

Figure 10.1. Membrane concentration/fractionation: microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis.

Figure 10.2. Microfiltration flowchart. UHT means ultra higher temperature.

Figure 12.1. Natural fermentation of raw milk.

Figure 13.1. Milk structure.

Figure 13.2. Consistency as a function of time during rennet coagulation.

Figure 13.3. Manufacture of chymosin (calf rennet) and fermentation produced recombinant chymosin.

Figure 14.1. Record of manufacture.

Figure 14.2. Record of quality control.

Figure 15.1. Cheddar cheese composition for optimal curing. (A) New Zealand standards for Premium and First Grade Cheddar cheese. (B) Typical ranges for high quality Canadian Cheddar.

Figure 16.1. A microscopic view of the composition of milk in the milk plasma phase and milk serum phase.

Figure 17.1.Aesthetics judge score card. The aesthetics judge starts with a given minimum value for each quality category and then adds points for positive characteristics. This score is added to the Technical score (See Figure 17.2) for a total score our of 100.

Figure 17.2 A technical judging score card.

Figure 21.1: Normal distribution curves showing importance of moisture control. The legend displays values as mean ± standard deviation

Figure 25.1: Membrane concentration/fractionation: microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis. The terms used in this figure will be explained in Section 7.2.1

Figure 25.2: An illustration of permeate and retentate

Figure 27.1: An example of sweet whey processing

Figure 27.2: Whey processing and utilization International standards for whey products are based on the Codex Alimentarius for Milk and milk products created by the World Health Organization


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Cheese Making Technology e-Book by Arthur Hill and Mary Ann Ferrer is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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